the second half of the 18th century, the wooden gear wheels were replaced
by brass wheels. Of considerable influence on this transition from woodwork
to wood-brass mechanism were the constructive changes, primarily at
the escape wheel. Balance clocks with spindle crown were still manufactured
during the second half of the 18th century. Clocks with a front pendulum
("short tail pendulum") approximately between 1740 and 1820.
The first clocks with a longer gravitation pendulum were made around
1750 and became customary in the19th century.
The progress towards
In the beginning, a clock maker needed approximately one week to finish
a simple clock. By 1780 however, two persons could manufacture 10 such
clocks in one week. In 1840/50 the valid rule of thumb was, that three
persons (foreman, journeyman, apprentice) would produce 18 clocks of
similar make in one week. Two working utensils played a considerable
part in this progress: gear chair and spindle tube bit. With the gear
chair, the laborious and time consuming production of gear wheels was
mechanized and the spindle tube bit simplified the production of the
lantern type drives. Essential features of labor division shortened
production time and expenditure even as early as in the 18th century.
The classic sidelines were the case makers, shield painters, casters and toolmakers. Considerably growing in the 19th century was the group
of the shield makers. A new addition, a little later, were the clock
chain producers, the gong makers and the wheel turner. 2:1 was the proportion
between clock makers and sideline activities around 1840. Before mid
19th century, approximately 50% of the total Black Forest clock production
was allotted to the big 24-hour clock with varnished wood shield and striking mechanism. This type of clock became the trademark of the local
Black Forest trade clock making.